In case anyone else is curious, it can be done. I’m using a Samsung Chromebook Plus, with Linux enabled. The Daisy setup instructions for Linux got me most of the way there. But “make program-dfu” didn’t work.
First I had to install dfu-util using apt-get. Next I had to set a Chrome flag: #crostini-usb-allow-unsupported, and restart my Chromebook.
Now when I put my Daisy Pod into bootloader mode, a dialog pops up saying “USB device detected. Open Settings to connect DFU in FS Mode to Linux.” You can ignore that; directly below is a clickable button/link “CONNECT TO LINUX” which does what you want. Then “make program-dfu” works. Note that I have to “CONNECT TO LINUX” every time I want to re-flash, which I find mildly annoying. But it works!